It was intended that water be fed by gravity from the catchment into a reservoir at Prospect. In a normal laccolith the intruded material has a flat lower surface and a convex upper surface so that it is more like half a lens in shape. The hill started to form around 200 million years ago when volcanic material from the Earth's core was thrust upwards and then sideways into joints in the layers of Triassic shales of the Cumberland Plain Woodland. Cummings was the first beneficiary of this change. Rain that falls on the southern slopes of Prospect Hill flows into Prospect Creek and then via the Georges River into Botany Bay. However, Prospect Hill is under immediate threat from development, which has the potential to impact upon the significance of the site. The tree cover was mainly the eucalypts, grey box and forest red gum.

Through its continued use for research purposes over the last 40 years, the CSIRO complex, which is located at the foot of Prospect Hill, has significance for those employees who have worked at the research facility, and in particular for those scientists who have carried out work which is of importance to Australia';s cultural history.[42][5].

[13] As a significant landmark on the Cumberland Plain, Prospect Hill provided an important reference point for early explorers from 1788, and played a role in the earliest exploration of the east coast of Australia.

4 Hobart to King, 30 Jan 1802, Historical Records of New South Wales, 4, p. 684. Sydney, Forestry Commission of New South Wales. Prospect Hill is unique as a significant landmark site, and through its ability to demonstrate historical links with early European exploration and settlement as well as Aboriginal conflict and reconciliation, with the landscape retaining its continual pastoral use since the early days of the colony.[5]. Boral developed two precinct plans. [13] On 18 July 1791 Phillip placed a number of men on the eastern and southern slopes of Prospect Hill, as the soils weathered from the basalt cap were richer than the sandstone derived soils of the Cumberland Plain. In: Johnson R. W., Knutson J. The soil from Rose Hill to Prospect-Hill is nearly alike, being a loam and clay." Eventually, a reconciliation was started by the Aboriginal people, negotiated by their women and one of the Prospect Hill settlers, John Kennedy.

The Early Jurassic activity resulted in the shaping of the Prospect dolerite intrusion, which unequivocally points that the hill had a volcanic origin. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 40.2%, Hinduism 11.8%, No Religion 9.7%, Anglican 7.3% and Islam 6.9%. Prospect Hill is historically significant as the site of a number of the earliest farms in New South Wales, with a number of time-expired convicts settled on the land in 1791 by Governor Phillip. The Eora were the traditional owners of the lands around Sydney Harbour, and they had a complex system of laws that governed social relations, behaviour and resource use. The material is predominantly coarse grained picrite with olivine-dolerite and dolerite. Much of the land appears to have been cleared by the 1820s and pastoral use of the land was well established by then.

This consisted of two diversion weirs, located at Pheasant's Nest and Broughton's Pass, in the Upper Nepean River catchment, with water feeding into a series of tunnels, canals and aqueducts known as the Upper Canal. Volcanic rocks on the hill are predominantly mafic. Lying centrally in the Cumberland Plain and dominating the landscape of the area, Prospect Hill is Sydney's largest body of igneous rock and rises to a height of 117 metres above sea level. In 1808 William Lawson was granted 220 hectares (550 acres) on the western slopes of the west ridge where he was to build his home Veteran Hall. A Bidjigal (Bidgigal) man from the Botany Bay area of Sydney, his country ‘stretched from Botany Bay south of the Cooks River and west along the Georges River to Salt Pan Creek, south of Bankstown.’ 1. [14] Prospect Hill is also associated with an important phase of Aboriginal/European contact; firstly through Pemulwuy's guerilla warfare in the area between 1797 and 1802, and in 1805 as the site of a reconciliation meeting involving Samuel Marsden.

[6] In 1799 Ensign William Cummings of the New South Wales Corps was granted 30 hectares (75 acres) at Prospect Hill.

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