First, we tested an alternate measure of neighborhood racial composition: whether respondents reported living on tribal lands such as a reservation, pueblo, or Alaska Native village (“yes” n = 109). In exploratory analyses, the association between geographic/neighborhood characteristics and discrimination among Native Americans was mixed. By Candyce H. Stapen.

Mary G. Findling, PhD, SM, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Questions on harassment, violence, and avoiding institutions for fear of discrimination were asked about whether they had been experienced by either respondents or their family members because of the sensitive nature of the topic. Previous research suggests that these experiences have had massive and cumulative effects on the physical, emotional, and psychological health of Native American individuals and communities.1-4 Research also shows that experiences of discrimination and harassment (including disproportionate exposures to trauma and recurrent microaggressions) have severe negative consequences for Native Americans' health behaviors and related outcomes.1-12 Major issues experienced by Native Americans include high mortality rates, poor health, low‐quality health care, suicide, drug and alcohol abuse, depression, and sexual violence.5, 13, Prior research indicates that for some US minorities, socioeconomic status, geographic variation, and neighborhood conditions may moderate the relationships between race, discrimination, and health. Due to our sample size, this study was limited in our ability to examine more nuanced patterns in experiences of discrimination along neighborhood and geographic lines, but future research should explore potentially important differences in Native Americans' experiences by geographic location, cultural identity, tribal affiliation, and residential segregation.16-19, 33. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Large confidence intervals in some logistic regression models (eg, health care avoidance) should be cautiously interpreted, as they may indicate low precision in estimates. Little research has examined discrimination among Native Americans and alternate measures of geography—whether living on tribal lands, or in rural areas—and our models showed no association with higher odds of reporting overall discrimination. 10 Places for Native American Vacation Experiences with Your Family By Candyce H. Stapen. Working off-campus? The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties.

See Benson, Ben‐Porath, and Casey (2019) for a further description of the survey methodology.30. Discover Native America one unforgettable experience at a time. We calculated the percent of Native Americans reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. In all follow‐up questions for Native American respondents, question wording used the term “Native American,” following language most commonly used. In sensitivity analyses using alternate measures of geographic/neighborhood characteristics, living on tribal lands was associated with higher odds of reporting discrimination in obtaining housing (OR [95% CI] 6.15 [1.61, 23.52]) and unfair treatment of you or family members by the courts (3.13 [1.19, 8.24]); there was no association with living on tribal lands and overall institutional discrimination in ordinal logistic regression models (1.37 [0.67, 2.84]) or institutional discrimination in any other domains (data not shown). 2010 findings from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, Reconceptualizing Native women's health: an “indigenist” stress‐coping model, Of warrior chiefs and Indian princesses: the psychological consequences of American Indian mascots on American Indians, Reclaiming representations & interrupting the cycle of bias against Native Americans, Racial discrimination and racial identity attitudes in relation to self‐rated health and physical pain and impairment among two‐spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives, Historical trauma in American Indian/Native Alaska communities: a multilevel framework for exploring impacts on individuals, families, and communities, Perceived discrimination, traditional practices, and depressive symptoms among American Indians in the upper Midwest, Suicidal ideation among American Indian Youths, Native people and violent crime: gendered violence and tribal jurisdiction, Self‐reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues, Racial disparities in health among nonpoor African Americans and Hispanics: the role of acute and chronic discrimination, Future directions in residential segregation and health research: a multilevel approach, Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence, Health disparities research among small tribal populations: describing appropriate criteria for aggregating tribal health data, Leading causes of death and all‐cause mortality in American Indians and Alaska Natives, Racism and health I: pathways and scientific evidence, Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research, The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Falling further behind: combatting racial discrimination in America, Policing on American Indian reservations, a report to the National Institute of Justice, A Quiet Crisis: Federal Funding and Unmet Needs in Indian Country, Assessing health status, behavioral risks, and health disparities in American Indians living on the Northern Plains of the U.S, American Association for Public Opinion Research, Standard definitions: final disposition case codes and outcome rates for surveys, What Low Response Rates Mean for Telephone Surveys, Assessing the Representativeness of Public Opinion Surveys, Methodology of the discrimination in the United States survey, Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorders, Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists, Race, socioeconomic status, and health—the added effects of racism and discrimination, Perceived discrimination in health care among American Indians/Alaska natives, Group size versus change? Native American Experience. While it is beyond the scope of these results to recommend specific approaches to ending discrimination, because discrimination continues to affect such a significant share of the Native American population, health service researchers should continue to examine Native Americans' unique experiences of discrimination because of their long‐term impacts on patients' overall health and well‐being. We conceptualized racial discrimination as differential or unfair treatment of individuals based on self‐identified race, whether by individuals (based on beliefs, words, and behavior) or social institutions (based on laws, policies, institutions, and related behavior of individuals who work in or control these laws, policies, or institution).15, 21, 31 We analyzed 18 questions from the survey, covering six institutional and six interpersonal areas of discrimination (question wording in Appendix S1). Third, Native Americans have significantly higher odds of reporting racial discrimination than whites in most areas, even after adjusting for major sociodemographic differences between the two groups.

Logistic regression models were estimated using complete case analysis. For example, discrimination research suggests that for blacks and Latinos, higher income and education levels are associated with greater reported discrimination.14, 15 However, it has not been thoroughly investigated whether these patterns would extend to Native Americans. Using metropolitan status as a measure of geographic variation, compared to those living in rural areas, living in a suburban or urban area was associated with higher odds of reporting unfair treatment by the courts (OR [95% CI] 2.73 [1.02, 7.28]), but there was no association with rural status and reported overall institutional discrimination in ordinal logistic regression models (0.65 [0.34, 1.24]) or institutional discrimination in any other domains (data not shown).

Pine Ridge Indian Reservation is … Native American Teaching Hike. For neighborhood racial composition, living in a predominantly Native neighborhood (a measure of residential segregation) was associated with higher odds of reporting discrimination in applying for jobs, equal pay/promotions, political participation, police interactions, and unfair treatment by the police and courts against you or Native American family members. Less than one‐quarter of whites reported personally experiencing discrimination in any single domain. Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Center for Human Identification, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, Research, Evaluation, and Learning Unit, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. For all analyses, statistical significance was determined at P < .05. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, "Ours is a story of survival, of cultural continuance. Institutional areas included were health care, employment, education, housing, political participation, and police and courts. In addition, because we specifically asked about racial discrimination, and because many forms of discrimination (including sexual harassment and violence) are often underreported, the “true” rate of Native Americans' experiences with discrimination is likely higher than our estimates.

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