[19] Summarizing, on the basis of the HIDD we can hypothesize that three different fault systems ruptured from north to south between 27 and 28 March: these could be hypothetically related to the Piano Lago and Savuto–Decollatura faults (7 in Figure 3) [e.g., Moretti, 2000], the Santa Eufemia–Feroleto fault (8 in Figure 3, which is part of the Lamezia‐Catanzaro fault in the study of Moretti [2000]) and the northern prosecution of the Mesima fault (9 in Figure 3) [see Monaco and Tortorici, 2000; Galli and Bosi, 2002]. Considering also the horizontal component (which seems prominent, even if smaller than the vertical one), we hypothesize a net (oblique) surficial offset of 1–1.2 m per event. Another event of unknown age might have occurred after the deposition of unit 4 (3540–3500 B.C. According to the account of the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher [Kircher, 1665], who was travelling over the zone struck by the earthquakes, while the first and main shock occurred effectively at the sunset of 27 March, the second and third area were hit only on the Palm Sunday (28 March), when he personally witnessed the disruption and the sinking of Santa Eufemia (see location in Figure 3): “The day after [the earthquakes of 27], Palm Sunday, [between Pizzo and Santa Eufemia]…we heard a rumbling sound like a thunder, quite hollow, which seemed coming from a far place, but that was growing louder as approaching nearer, until it stopped in the underground of the place on which we stood. May 13, 2019  If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, ), which is cut by fault B, the latter being “sealed” by ES2 (well before 240–100 B.C.)

Mexico City and Washington DC – two capitals in comparison. LF (trending NW‐SE) cuts the eastern sector of the Sila massif and dips southwestward, damming the drainage network that runs toward the Ionian Sea. Great World Earthquakes Magnitude 8 or more, Moderate World Earthquakes Magnitude 5–5.9, Light earthquake 4.2 mag, 37 km NW of Santa Domenica, Italy, Light earthquake, 4 mag has occurred near Villafranca Tirrena in Italy, Light earthquake 4.1 mag, 1 km SSE of Melicucca, Italy, Moderate earthquake, 5.1 mag strikes near Acitrezza in Italy, Light earthquake: M4.3 quake has struck near Letoianni in Italy, Light earthquake 4.6 mag, 2 km NNW of Misterbianco, Italy, Light earthquake, 4.4 mag has occurred near Palmi in Italy, Light earthquake, 4.5 mag strikes near Zambrone in Italy, Minor earthquake, 3.9 mag was detected near Santo Stefano in Aspromonte in Italy, Light earthquake: M4.6 quake strikes near Lipari in Italy, Earthquake: M 4.7 quake strikes near Lipari in Italy. The oldest evidence of Reggio’s evolution can thus be found at the beginning of the seafront: archeological excavations in this site have unearthed the Greek walls that originally marked the official borders of the city and which can give us the idea of the early physical settlement made there by its first inhabitants.

Note illustrative della carta al 250.000, Quanti terremoti distruttivi abbiamo perso nell'ultimo millennio?

Small Bodies, Solar Systems Half of the 10 M ≥ 6.9 earthquakes that occurred in Italy during the past centuries had their epicenters in the long and narrow Calabrian peninsula (Figure 1). Note the pond formed by the uprising footwall; the water level has been partly lowered by the native‐born workers who cut the fault scarp/threshold. Related to Geologic Time, Mineralogy [23] In contrast to the 27 March event and to several studied case histories [e.g., Galli and Galadini, 1999], the June HIDD does not depict any particular trend which could highlight the causative fault. This event has been recently studied by Chiodo [1993] and Scaccianoce [1993]. In northern Calabria, as exception to this rule, the Castrovillari fault (1 in Figure 1) [Bousquet, 1973] surely ruptured during the historical period [Cinti et al., 1997], although its effects were not recorded by any primary source. (sample CGL3), whereas units 6 and 7 should be dated back before the climate phase responsible for the development of ES1. The HIDD surrounds at north, east, and south the Sila massif, reflecting the absence of villages in the mountainous area, a wild and inhospitable plateau with elevations ranging between 1300 and 1900 m asl. We are always looking for talented writers and would love to hear your ideas. The LF capability to produce surface displacement (assumed also for CLF), associated to the high level of shaking related to the “near‐field” condition, are factors that would strongly affect the possible collapse of the dams (see surface faulting effects on dams in Seno [1999]). The fault location fits with the historical description of a long fracture opened during the event, our trenching area being still named by the natives “the earthquake sag.” The young geomorphic expression of LF recalls that of the 1980 Irpinia fault, suggesting its relatively recent activation within the extensional regime characterizing the Calabrian arc. (sample CAG01), while the entire alluvial–marsh succession (units 7–4) was deposited between 1500 and 1100 B.C. New insights on the 1908 earthquake and tsunami. We send out a monthly newsletter to keep you up-to-date. The historical description of the surficial breaks allowed us the identification of the causative fault (and of the physic epicenter) running inside the mountainous uninhabited area. Want to keep up on the latest publications from The Proto City? The magnitude of these events is minor of the one reported by Working Group CPTI [1999] (Me = 7), being possibly ≤6.6.

The elevation of unit 6 is at least 4 m higher than very similar lacustrine grayish blue clays, which outcrop below unit 1a along the walls of the drainage canal of the present basin. Analysis of deformation structures in Pliocene and Quaternary deposits of the Hyblean Plateaux (south-eastern Sicily). The penultimate event occurred in the 7th and 8th century A.D. (our preferred age after 14C age of 645–691 A.D. and before 798–893 A.D., 776–900 A.D.). Partial view of the northern wall of trench 1 during the excavation phase (see inset in, Sketch of northern wall of trench 1. (CAGS4b, age of the bulk of the lacustrine clays). This event is well constrained in trench 2 and 4, it is compatible with the data coming from trench 1, whereas it is not seen in trench 3 due to the lack of sediments (Figure 16). Fuscaldo fault [Moretti, 1993], no displacements of any upper Pleistocene–Holocene deposits are known. The ages of paleoearthquakes recognized in the individual trenches have been correlated assuming that each time the fault rupture is the same. Unfortunately, this was also doomed to disappear after the last serious seismic activity registered in Reggio Calabria (1908). One of the most relevant innovations introduced in this field was the massive use of the reinforced concrete in the construction of buildings. [59] The marsh was then gradually filled by sandy deposits and, at least since 1182–1299 A.D., the trees of the nearby forest recolonized the area (CAGC2, a big root remnant, which we believe to have grown after the reclamation/drainage of the marsh (unit 2), thus predating EH1).

In the whole the earthquake destroyed more than 100 among villages and hamlets, causing between 10,000 and 30,000 casualties, while several surface breaks, landslides, liquefactions and sinking have been reported by many primary sources to have occurred in different places. This value could be thus indicative of the return period of the LF. Finally, coupling slip per event and fault length we obtain a Mo = 6.7, which is the same value gathered for Me. On the other hand, extension dramatically rotates southward to the Catanzaro strait in a NW‐SE direction, as evidenced by fault orientation and focal mechanism of southern Calabria [Galli and Bosi, 2002, and references therein]. Chapter 1 Introduction to Paleoseismology. The Proto City is where young urban researchers share their work with the wider world. It is worth to note that while part of the damage could be interpreted as cumulative on that caused by the March event, part could be underestimated (e.g., south and western sector) due to the previous level of disruption of buildings which did not allowed to “record” further damages (“if it did not cause a new slaughter it was because it found few places to beat down on”) [Bernaudo, 1639]. [70] Seismic hazard studies in Italy [e.g., Lucantoni et al., 2001], together with the proposed Seismic Reclassification of the Italian territory [Working Group, 1999] are currently based on a probabilistic method [Cornell, 1968] which implies the use of a “declustered” catalogue [Camassi and Stucchi, 1997] coupled with a seismogenetic zonation of the Italian territory [Meletti et al., 2000, and references herein]. [38] During April 2001 we decided to open a first 8 m long, 5.5 m deep trench across the strand of the scarp which dams a small lake and a marsh at the foothill of Colle della Giumenta (Figure 4, site 1, and Figure 7). Late Cenozoic uplift of southern Italy deduced from fluvial and marine sediments: Coupling between surface processes and lower-crustal flow. [17] Actually, the analysis of all the most significant contemporary sources [e.g., Bianchi, 1638; Capecelatro, 1640a, 1640b, 1640c; D'Amato, 1670; D'Orsi, 1640; Kircher, 1665; Recupito, 1638; Vera relatione, 1638; Compassionevole relazione, 1638] allowed us to define at least three separated epicentral areas (Table 1). Objects, Solid Surface In any case, due to the location of the epicenter in a mountainous and uninhabited area, the Io value should be reasonably higher than the evaluated Imax.

Others paleoearthquakes, although lacking of definitive cross correlation among trenches, seems to be occurred about the 3rd, 12th, and 21th century B.C. (sample CAG2, a big angular piece of charcoal), age of the canal damming (EH3). The crystalline rocks are affected by deep and variable weathering profiles, which probably developed during Pliocene and lower Pleistocene, when a vast paleosurface was carved all over the emerged Sila massif [Dramis et al., 1990].

Sketch of northern wall of trench 4.

[55] Trench 4 is the southernmost one of the Cagno basin (site 4 in Figure 4). Seismogenetic zones of northern Calabria according to, Journal of Advances

Note the “flower structure” feature in the fault zone, possibly related to the horizontal component of the motion.

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