In particular, the women painted and crafted designs on clothing and tipis that depicted spiritual beings and tribal legends. Otoe • [9], In partnership with Southwestern Oklahoma State University, the tribe founded the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribal College on August 25, 2006. In particular, they gathered for the Sun Dance festival at the time of the summer solstice. [8] The Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma Culture and Heritage Program teaches hand games, powwow dancing and songs, horse care and riding, buffalo management, and Cheyenne and Arapaho language. Later congressional investigations resulted in short-lived U.S. public outcry against the slaughter of the Native Americans. Both tribes face many difficulties on their reservation, including unemployment, alcoholism, and the struggle to maintain their tribal customs and beliefs in contemporary life. This treaty promised the Arapaho a reservation in Kansas, but they disliked the location. They speak a variation of the Algonquin language, and are that people’s most southwest extension. Sioux • The Arapaho language is an Algonquian language related to the language of the Gros Ventre people, who are seen as an early offshoot of the Arapaho. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_3',162,'0','0'])); The origin of the name Arapaho is unclear. The Arapaho Indians Tribe History were known as a warring tribe and after being introduced to the horse became some of the most proficient warriors on horseback. Arapaho, North American Indian tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock who lived during the 19th century along the Platte and Arkansas rivers of what are now the U.S. states of Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas. The Northern Arapaho assisted the Northern Cheyenne (who had also separated into two groups) and Lakota in driving the Kiowa and Comanche south from the Northern Plains.

The Northern Arapaho Nation continue to live with the Eastern Shoshone on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. Today the Arapaho Tribe owns and operates the Wind River Casino, Little Wind Casino, and 789 Smoke Shop & Casino. Together they were successful hunters and active traders with other tribes. The Arapaho tribe of Native Americans historically lived on the eastern plains of Colorado and Wyoming, although they originated in the Great Lakes region as relatively peaceful farmers. Kansa • A band of Northern Arapaho under Chief Black Bear suffered defeat in 1865 at Tongue River during the war for the Bozeman Trail. Its first president Dr. Henrietta Mann, enrolled tribal member, was inaugurated on April 3, 2008. The Northern Arapaho participated in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, also known as "Custer's Last Stand" which occurred in June 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory. Their oral traditions suggest that they once had permanent villages in the Eastern Woodlands, where they engaged in agriculture. It might have come from the Pawnee word tirapihu (or larapihu) for "traders. Arapaho Indian's home had an extremely diverse terrain, including areas reaching up to 14,433, Although the mountains provided sufficient shelter, come winter many would be, hard pressed to survive in the below freezing temperatures on the mountainside. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'newworldencyclopedia_org-box-4','ezslot_2',170,'0','0'])); The Arapaho were originally a sedentary, agricultural people with permanent villages and used dogs to pull travois with their belongings on them. The scenic and mountainous reservation is home to over 3,900 Eastern Shoshone and 8,600 Northern Arapaho enrolled tribal members and contains about 2,268,000 acres of land within its exterior boundary. Before European expansion into the area in the seventeenth century, the Arapaho Indian tribe most likely lived in the Great Lakes region, in Canada and Minnesota and North Dakota. They raided other Indian tribes, primarily the Pawnee and Comanche, to obtain horses and became successful hunters. Cheyenne-Arapaho Lands of Oklahoma Genealogy, Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, Cheyenne-Arapaho Lands of Oklahoma: Oklahoma Arapaho, Arapaho - Great Buffalo Hunters of the Plains, Wyoming Citizen of the Century Nominee Sherman Coolidge, Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma Constitution and By-Laws, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Arapaho&oldid=1001620, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Chief Little Raven (ca. After acquiring horses, the Arapaho moved further south. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Arapahoe Indians, Arapaho Tribe, Arapaho Indians. The Curtis Act of 1898 dismantled the tribal governments in an attempt to have the tribal members assimilate to United States conventions and culture. The Southern Arapaho with the Southern Cheyenne were involved in the conflicts as allies of the Comanche and Kiowa in the southern plains. The Northern Arapaho settled in Wyoming, around the North Platte River. Kiowa • In mid-summer Arapahos traveled into the Parks region of Colorado to hunt mountain herds, returning onto the Plains in late summer to autumn for ceremonies and for collective hunts of herds gathering for the rutting season. This battle was the most famous action of the Great Sioux War of 1876 (also known as the Black Hills War). passed down within the tribe tells of a crossing over a great frozen river to. Obsidian and flint were some of the most valuable sone for making spear and arrowheads, One of the most valuable tools was the knife because knives were used to make other, Obsidian was found near ancient lava flows, American Indians would find flint in limestone and chalk deposits, Both obsidian and flint, when struck by another rock or bone will flake, which is known as knapping, The knapping of the bade by another stone or knife determines the outcome of the shape of the arrow or spearhead, How the stone is struck and with what force determines the shape of the blade, consisted of long spears , bows and arrows, and shields made of buffalo hide. [12] Of this population, 6,728 (28.9 percent) were Native Americans (full or part) and of them 54 percent were Arapaho and 30 percent Shoshone. ; Oral history passed down within the tribe tells of a crossing over a great frozen river to the north of Arapaho settlements; with the river most likely being the Missouri. They were thought to have originated in the Minnesota region, where they grew maize and other crops. They were known to eat their dogs when no other food was available. The Arapaho were signers of the Fort Laramie Treaty with the United States in 1851. Southern Arapaho died with Black Kettle's band of Southern Cheyenne at the Sand Creek Massacre.

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